Of course the Southern slope of the Glacier Girdle facing the Sunny Hemisphere, was the only facet of the glaciers to ever even receive twilight. Direct sunlight may have melted some ice, during the springs and summers, which undoubtedly accumulated every winter, near Poles.
The amphibians spread to the Ring Mountains, and circled the Sunny Hemisphere, during their reign. And lived on, through a number of mass extinctions, and watched the world we know today take shape. Hundreds of species still survive in many a nook and harbor, on our Earth today.
After the reptiles appeared, they too evolved into hundreds of species, and like the amphibians, circled the Globe. And as the land changed ever more into a shape that we would recognize, they evolved into the dinosaurs, the largest animals to ever walk upon out Earth.
Dinosaurs, the magnificent curiosity, seem to incite extreme awe and fascination in nearly everyone. They ruled the World for more than a hundred and sixty million years. The only equals the mightiest of them ever met were members of their own kind. They evolved into thousands of different species, and at least periodically inhabited every continent on Earth. The predators dined on everything from insects to brontosaurus.
The herbivores munched on a wide variety of flora, ranging from moss and grass, to leaves and twigs plucked from tall trees. They adapted to utilize nearly every niche and expanse in their environment that the present-day mammals have managed to occupy. Dinosaurs were hardy, adaptable and great survivors.
They deserve our awe and admiration. The dinosaurs occupied a much different world than we know. The sunny side of their world was bathed in continuous Sunlight. But the site of the North and South Polar Axes, probably only annually, saw the Sun rise over the horizon but a short way, less than sixty degrees, before it started to descend again. The rest of the year was spent in a waning twilight and falling temperatures, forecasting the impeding cold, dark winter.
After two or three months of total darkness, the horizon would once again show a hint of light. The temperature would then begin to rise as light slowly flooded the area, long before the Sun actually appeared over the horizon, to usher in another summer. Under these conditions was, when and where, nearly all the plants that we know today originated. Annuals, learned to flower, produce their seeds and drop them quickly, that they might extend their species through the coming winter.
Perennials evolved and honed the ability to anticipate the coming winter, drop its leaves, and let the moisture drain from its trunks or stem and limbs, and descend down deep into its roots. It learned to become dormant. To survive the winter by playing dead, only to miraculously sprout new leaves and burst into bloom, with the arrival of spring.
But the areas around the North and South Polar Axis were not the only areas on Primitive Earth, where life established thriving, biologically diverse communities. Outside the reach of any [or at least any continuous] direct sunrays. Antarctica, Australia, Eurasia, North America and South America all had large tracks of land that perpetually remained in the twilight. All also had lands that only seasonally received some direct sunlight, and remained in the twilight for the rest of the year. Some of these areas, for example, the strip of land that reaches from Northern Mexico up through Montana and North Dakota, were among the most biologically productive areas on Earth. The oil and coal reserves in this strip pay mute testimony to that fact. Yet this area was well within a twilight zone throughout the entire Dinosaur Era.
Of course we all know that flora flourishes under the canopy of a rain forest. That many plants actually prefer indirect light. Yet, frankly it was a bit unsettling to have to conclude that ninety percent of the fossils, of flora and fauna, that I saw in my life, lived and died in a twilight zone. A lot about such an environment matches the known characteristics of the era’s flora. The giant ferns, the incredible height that some of the relatively small trees reached, the huge cattails, and over sized leaves of other plants, all point toward the probability that these plants grew in an environment with little or no direct sunlight. It is almost certain that such plants did not grew in any environment sporting continuous direct sunlight.
If the clouds during the Dinosaur Era naturally moved away from the center of the Sunny Hemisphere, and slowed as they spread out like anything moving centrifugally does, then the skies of all the twilight zones around the World were probably all partly cloudy, to mostly cloudy, most of the time. If such was the reality, the sun shining over the horizon and reflecting off of those clouds, could have very easily doubled, or perhaps even tripled the amount of light, that would normally have been reflected off the water and emerging continents. A cloud cover would also have competently conserved the heat, which moved continuously from the Sunny Hemisphere, to the Twilight Zone.
The world at the edge of the Sunny Hemisphere must have been a strange, eerie world. Whether or not, an area at the edge of Sunny Hemisphere received some direct sunlight, or lay just beyond the reach of the Sun’s rays, the plants, including the trees, would surely have grown/leaned sharply toward the light. We may have to adjust our concept of light-boned rangy animals scampering around on the forest floors, to an expanded arboreal existence.
Imagining such animals chasing each another up, down and through the tops of leaning trees, and remembering that some of these animals developed something that at least resembled feathers, it is not hard to accept that gliding, or even true flight about had to be an evolutionary possibility. In retrospect, some may think, it logically appears obtaining the ability to fly was more like, a probability. The animals that occupied the Earth, during the Dinosaur Era, had a long, long time to acquire and hone new evolutionary abilities.
There is a problem, with asserting that crustal plates tilted down to the oceanic ridges, and created the Sunny Hemisphere’s ocean basins. Any sphere, ncluding the Earth’s crust, holds a finite amount of matter. And if we maintain dents are developing on a sphere’s surface, then we must account for where the matter went, which those dents displaced. When the Glacier Girdle pushed land from the center of the Sunny Hemisphere, the floor of the Pacific Ocean behind the Glacier Girdle was left far below gravitational, spherical, balance.
To put it in the simplest terms, as the force of gravity increased on the crust of the Earth, as it emerged from the Sunlit Ocean, the pressures increased proportionally inside the Earth’s Crust on the opposite side of the World. You would think, since the ocean floors are obviously the lowest points on the Earth’s surface, that any untenable internal pressures built up in the Earth’s crust, would be ejected out upon the ocean floors. Obviously that is not what usually happens. Instead it is more ordinary to see the top blow off some mountain that is thousands of yards [several kilometers] high and often within a few hundred miles [or kilometers] of the ocean.
The pressure it takes to force magma up thousands of yards/meters through the interior of a mountain, and then blow the top off of that mountain, is almost incalculable. But one thing is for sure: The pressure is far greater a hundred miles away, a couple thousand yards/meters below sea-level on the ocean floor.
The primary reason magma seldom escapes on the ocean floors is; when magma tries to escape up through a fissure and comes into contact with water, it is almost instantly cooled. It is like dropping a red-hot horseshoe in a bucket of cold water. In two minutes you can handle such a horseshoe with your bare hands. Magma that comes into direct contact with cold water, usually violently bursts, into tiny pieces.
Only after the water surrounding the magma gets hot enough, and/or sufficient shattered debris accumulates to protect the magma and allow it to cool a bit more slowly, does it began to set up. Eventually magma nearly always solidifies and effectively keeps the fissures in the ocean floors, at least temporarily, sealed.
Then the top of a fissure is sealed and the pressure keep mounting to untenable extremes, the magma takes the route of least resistance to relieve that pressure. Some times the plug, the newly solidified magma that sealed the fissure, is the weakest lank, and gets violently removed, in an undersea eruption. Such eruptions are common along oceanic fissures.
They very greatly in intensity and can eject a great deal, or very little of the fissure walls, along with the plug. The largest eruptions create giant tsunamis that ravage beaches, hundreds of kilometers/miles away. Eventually the water manages to cool and bring even the most violent eruptions under control. And the fissure is resealed, with a little larger plug.
Where the plug is strong enough, and remains in place long enough, the pressure is often relieved by a route that avoids the antithetical clashes of water and magma. The pressure of the magma instead forces a subterranean intrusion between the strata that constitutes the ocean floor.
Magma usually intrudes deep enough below the ocean floor, that some of the water has been squeezed out of the formations where it encroaches. Sealed from direct contact with water and blanketed against heat loss by the strata above, the intruding magma may flow for years and cover huge areas. It should be noted that once the formations above the magma have been broken loose and lifted, it takes little or no pressure to hold them up. The magma is heavier than the formations. The lifted stratum literally floats upon the magma.
The magma, which had to move to allow the oceans basins on the Sunny hemisphere to sink, caused a like quantity of magma to intrude subterraneously between the strata on the floor of the Pacific Ocean. The evidence of these intrusions remains obvious today, even though the Pacific Ocean has under gone some dramatic changes since the Dinosaur Era ended. The thousands of sea mounts on the floor of the Pacific Ocean offers proof of where the magma may have gone.
Were you aware that the shores of the North Pacific and South Pacific Oceans are congruent with two overlapping circles? The black ring circling the North Pacific and the red ring circling the South Pacific [below] clearly demonstrates how those two circles overlap.
A common bisector of the two circles, the green line, traces the site of the Earth’s original Equator. And if we bisect that portion of the Equator within the circles, as the white line does, we can geometrically locate the site [the red square] of the original North Magnetic Pole. The same site scientists had carefully ascertained was the original North Magnetic Pole, by paleomagnetic investigation, long before Cox, Doell and Cohorts began to skew Polar History, in their attempts to bolster the Theory of Continental Drift.
The red square, at the Northwest corner of the Sea of Okhotsk, [directly above the black ring on North Pacific image] is the site of the original North Axis Pole, and later became home to the North Magnetic Pole. My book carefully explains these revelations. Why these circles are where they are, and how these circles dictated where the Axis and Magnetic Poles were located. It even carefully explains why the Magnetic Poles moved, to join the Axis Poles. And this is just a few of several extraordinary facts, explained in my book, which will inevitably rewrite Earth History.
The North Magnetic Pole may have drifted [what is presently South] a few degrees during the summer on [what is presently the Northern Hemisphere] and drifted a few degrees [what is presently North] during the summer on [what is presently the Southern Hemisphere].
Whether or not the Magnetic Poles have always wondered as they have in the last couple thousand years is uncertain. But it is doubtful that they wondered any appreciable amount before they started to drift, toward the Polar Rotational Axis. Before the Earth started rotating once a day, the Earth’s magnetic field may have had a much more stable guidance system than it has today.